Meet the Animals: Chesapeake Critters
Oyster Toadfish (Opsanus Tau): The oyster toadfish is a bottom-dwelling ambush predator that can often be found hiding in oyster reefs. This fish will eat anything that fits in its mouth – small crustaceans, mollusks, and even other fish if it can catch them. Don’t judge this “ugly” fish by its appearance – toadfish are actually quite romantic. Male toadfish court females by “singing” to them, though the sound is more reminiscent of a foghorn than Justin Bieber.
American Eel (Anguilla rostrate): Our American eel may look like a snake, but it is really a fish. This eel is catadromous, meaning it lives most of its life in freshwater, but migrates into salt water to reproduce. During this migration, they slide over rocks, find their way over dams, and even manage to slither through wet grass.
Mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus): Mummichogs live in the shallow waters of marshes and tidal creeks. Their name comes from the Native American word for “going in crowds” because this fish is often founds in large schools of as many as 100 individuals. Mummichogs are hardy fish, surviving in a wide range of salinities and temperatures, and they are even resilient to low oxygen and pollution. It’s a good thing these little fish are so tough! One mummichog can eat as many as 2,000 mosquito larvae in a single day, so they are crucial to keeping mosquito populations small.
Horseshoe Crab (Limulus polyphemus): Horseshoe crabs are not crabs at all but are actually close relatives of scorpions and spiders. This not-crab has 12 legs with a mouth in the center, 10 eyes, and blue blood. Horseshoe crabs have been on this planet longer than dinosaurs – 300 million years, and they are an invaluable link in the Chesapeake Bay food web. Horseshoe crabs crawl on shore from May-June in order to reproduce, and their eggs and larvae are important food for fishes, sea turtles, and migrating sea birds.
Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus): The blue crab is a commercially important crustacean in the Chesapeake Bay. The blue crab fishery in the Bay nearly collapsed in the ‘90s and early 2000s, but is recovering thanks to new legislation. New laws included setting restrictions on what time of day fishers could collect crabs, restricting fishers to only taking crabs that are above a certain size, and requiring that fishers only take male crabs. Female crabs, called “Sallys,” have red tips on their claws like nail polish. Male crabs, called “Jimmys,” lack the red claw tips.